Transcendental Analytic (9-28-16)
Kant’s view of logic is such that it is concerned with the rules of understanding. He is following the tradition of Aristotelian logic.
Pure General Logic:
- Simple terms(Kant’s Concepts) S,P,Q, etc.
- Two term proposition (Kant’s Judgments) S is P
- Three term syllogisms (Kant’s Inferences) S is P; P is Q; ∴ S is Q
Just as pure general logic is organized concept, judgment, inference; transcendental logic is analogously organized understanding, judgment, reason. Reasoning relies on using judgments, and judgments require concepts, thus all three are required for understanding.
Kant’s Four Criteria for his Categories
- Pure, not empirical
- Belong to thought, not intuition
- Fundamental, not derivative
- The Table must be complete
Completeness is important because these concepts will be part of a system in such a way that if one fails to capture all(completeness) the concepts, one cannot be sure they have any of them.
“the understanding is an absolute unity”
“The understanding may be represented as a faculty of judgment” (B94)
Kant has an organizing principle in mind to arive at his categories “…a common principle, namely, the faculty of judgment(which is the same as the faculty of thought).(A81)
Understanding– Capacity to know by means of concepts(thinking is the use of concepts i.e. a discursive capacity)
As intuitions rest on affections(singular+immediate), concepts rest on functions(general+mediate)
The Latin notion of Function represents a kind of performance or execution, an act. Kant is not thinking of function in the mathematical way Frege and Russel were.
Function is to Spontaneity as Affection is to Receptivity.
The capacity to know by means of concepts is judgment. Judgment is a kind of synthesis by which general representations(concepts) function.
Two ways to speak of containment:
- “Tree” is contained in the fir, the willow and the linden
- Fir, willow, and linden are contained under “tree”*
“The functions of the understanding can be discovered if we can give an exhaustive statement of the functions of unity in judgments”(B94)
If the understanding is the spontaneity to act, and its act is judgment, we nedd to find the acts which make up judgment.
*This example is from Kant’s work on logic